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Trade

A deal has established new rules on the trading of goods and services between the UK and EU. What does it mean for physics?


The UK left the EU on 31 January 2020, and the transition period ended on 31 December 2020. The new relationship - and a new trade deal - with the EU began on 1 January 2021, with the Northern Ireland protocol in place.

The agreement established tariff- and quota-free trading of goods and services between the UK and the EU, and co-operation in science, climate change, nuclear and fusion research, security and transport.

Importing goods and services

If you import goods and services from the EU (excluding the Republic of Ireland) to the UK, you are now required to declare goods and understand the new rules for the goods you handle, such as import licences or certificates. You will also need to change the EORI number you operate with, and ensure you pay the correct tax and duty. Find out about the importation rules.

Exporting goods and services

If you export goods and services from the UK to the EU (excluding the Republic of Ireland) you are now required to declare goods and understand the new rules for the goods you handle, such as export licences or certificates. You will also need to change the EORI number you operate with, and ensure you pay the correct VAT. Find out about the exportation rules.

Personal data and GDPR

If you receive, use or share personal data, your organisation may need to have standard contractual clauses (SCCs) in place with EU counterparts in order to legally receive personal data from the EU. Find out more.

Ireland

Many of the new importation and exportation rules will not apply if you trade between the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland. For example, you’ll not usually need an EORI number if you only move goods between Northern Ireland and Ireland.

Find out more about the rules for trading on the island of Ireland.