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131. Professor Sir Konstantin Novoselov: Graphene: Materials in the Flatland (Score: 1.0000)
In 2010, two physicists, Andre Geim and Konstantin Novoselov, working at the University of Manchester, received the Nobel Prize for Physics for making and studying a new form of carbon -- graphene. Prof. Sir Konstantin Novoselov, recipient of one of IOP's highest awards, Honorary Fellowship, talks about the work that led to the discovery of Graphene, what makes it so special, its current applications and what the future holds for this remarkable material. The Institute is a charity registered...
http://www.iop.org/resources/videos/lectures/page_62071.html

132. Visions 19: Dark energy (Score: 1.0000)
Surveys of exploding stars ' supernovae ' in distant galaxies indicated that they were much further away than expected. This was not what cosmologists wanted to hear; they had developed a robust description of how the Universe has evolved into the galaxies and clusters of galaxies we see today. The Institute is a charity registered in England and Wales (no. 293851) and Scotland (no. SC040092).
http://www.iop.org/publications/iop/archive/page_52123.html

133. Visions 18 - Magnetic resonance imaging (Score: 1.0000)
Imaging scanners that detect signals from magnetic nuclei in living tissues are revolutionising biomedical knowledge and opening the way to earlier diagnosis and safer, less invasive surgery. Many people today will have had a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan to diagnose a medical condition. The Institute is a charity registered in England and Wales (no. 293851) and Scotland (no. SC040092).
http://www.iop.org/publications/iop/archive/page_52120.html

134. Visions 17 - free electron lasers (Score: 1.0000)
A new light source generating intense bursts of coherent radiation over a wide range of wavelengths promises to revolutionise our understanding of matter. Brilliant sources of electromagnetic radiation, from microwaves, through visible light to X-rays, provide scientists with powerful tools for studying and even transforming all kinds of matter. During the past 40 years, various sources have been developed: the laser is well known; another is a large ring-shaped machine which deflects a beam ...
http://www.iop.org/publications/iop/archive/page_52117.html

135. Visions 16: Bose-Einstein condensates (Score: 1.0000)
The phenomenon is not only providing new insights into quantum theory ' which underpins our understanding of the Universe at the microscopic level ' but also opens the door to a host of applications such as atom lasers, improved atomic clocks and quantum computers. Quantum theory is a mathematical framework which describes the wave-like behaviour of atoms (as well as photons of light). Eighty years ago, Albert Einstein and the Indian physicist Satyendra Nath Bose predicted that a cloud of...
http://www.iop.org/publications/iop/archive/page_52187.html

136. Visions 15: Seeing with neutrons (Score: 1.0000)
Our view of the world comes from light waves that have scattered off the surface of objects and have been collected by sensors – our eyes.' However, there’s another type of radiation comprising beams of particles called neutrons – which also penetrate matter, offering a different and often unique view of its make-up. The Institute is a charity registered in England and Wales (no. 293851) and Scotland (no. SC040092).
http://www.iop.org/publications/iop/archive/page_52184.html

137. Visions 14: Technological plasmas (Score: 1.0000)
They are gases containing charged particles – usually electrons and atoms that have lost electrons (ions). We can see the effect in the beautiful aurora – as plasma from the Sun (the solar wind) interacts with molecules in the Earth’s atmosphere – and, closer to home, in fire, lightning and in brightly coloured neon signs. The Institute is a charity registered in England and Wales (no. 293851) and Scotland (no. SC040092).
http://www.iop.org/publications/iop/archive/page_52181.html

138. Visions 13: Mega-telescopes (Score: 1.0000)
The optical and infrared varieties have huge mirrors up to 10 metres across which can gather and focus the faint smudges of light from very distant galaxies. A 100-metre telescope would have 100 times more light-gathering power, resulting in a leap in performance equivalent to that yielded by Galileo’s invention of the telescope 400 years ago. The Institute is a charity registered in England and Wales (no. 293851) and Scotland (no. SC040092).
http://www.iop.org/publications/iop/archive/page_52178.html

139. Visions 12: Photonics (Score: 1.0000)
Futuristic fictional scenarios often depict information stored not on disks and tapes but in some kind of transparent ‘crystal.’' Light has several advantages over electrons as an information carrier: it’s very much faster and has the potential to convey vast amounts of data with lower power losses. The Institute is a charity registered in England and Wales (no. 293851) and Scotland (no. SC040092).
http://www.iop.org/publications/iop/archive/page_52175.html

140. Visions 11: E-science (Score: 1.0000)
Powerful global computing networks are set to enable a new, collective approach to doing science. Yet the Web was first purely a physicist’s tool – developed at CERN, the European particle physics laboratory in Geneva, to allow its research teams based across different countries to communicate and share data. The Institute is a charity registered in England and Wales (no. 293851) and Scotland (no. SC040092).
http://www.iop.org/publications/iop/archive/page_52172.html

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