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1. IOP Press Office Information (Score: 1.0000)
1. Physics World is the international monthly magazine published by the Institute of Physics. 3. ' The Institute of Physics is a leading scientific society. We engage with policymakers and the general public to develop awareness and understanding of the value of physics and, through IOP Publishing, we are world leaders in professional scientific communications.

2. Topic of the Moment: fuel cells (Score: 1.0000)
Fuel cells convert hydrogen and oxygen into water, producing electricity in the process. The type typically considered for transport applications e proton exchange membrane fuel cells. Unlike batteries, which convert stored chemical energy to electricity, fuel cells need a constant supply of hydrogen and oxygen in order to work.

3. Topic of the Moment � LEDs (Score: 1.0000)
When a voltage passes through the LED, electrons recombine with holes in the semiconductor, emitting light in the process. Creation of blue LEDs proved elusive until Shuji Nakamura of the Nichia Corporation in Tokushima, Japan, produced one 1994. Blue, green and red LEDs can be combined to produce white light, so they can be used to create lamps that use vastly less electricity than incandescent bulbs.

4. Topic of the Moment � Proton Beam Therapy (Score: 1.0000)
As Ashya King begins to receive proton beam therapy for a brain tumour, we look at what the treatment is and how it works. Proton beam therapy works similarly to conventional radiotherapy, except that beams of protons, instead of X-rays, are used to kill cancer cells. Two advanced radiotherapy centres offering high-energy proton beam therapy are set to open in 2018.

5. Topic of the Moment � the Rosetta comet mission (Score: 1.0000)
In August, the European Space Agency's probe Rosetta made its final approach to Comet Churyumov'Gerasimenko, entering the last stage of a mission a decade in the making that aims to be the first to land a spacecraft on a comet. In 1969, Kiev-based astronomers Klim Ivanovych Churyumov and Svetlana Ivanovna Gerasimenko discovered the comet now being orbited by the Rosetta spacecraft. Currently circling the comet under its rocket power, Rosetta will enter a proper orbit during September and,...

6. Topic of the Moment � solar storms (Score: 1.0000)
Solar flares ' an observed increased in brightness across the Sun's surface ' occur when charged particles travelling at high speed interact with solar plasma. Solar flares release a burst of energy equivalent to about a sixth of the Sun's normal power output, and are often followed by coronal mass ejection '' in which huge amounts of charged particles and radiation are released from the Sun at very high speed. Sometimes the ejected material simply rises as an arc above the Sun's...

7. Topic of the Moment – Football (Score: 1.0000)
An education resource produced by IOP even uses football themes to provide insight into physics topics – passing the ball forms the basis of discussions of trajectories and friction, while how to stay on your feet is used to explain the idea of centre of gravity. Striking the ball off-centre gives it a spin, which changes the airflow around the ball and creates a turbulent wake. The airflow is deflected in the direction of spin, giving the ball a horizontal force and resultant motion.

8. Topic of the Moment � When a planet is not a planet (Score: 1.0000)
Both are now considered dwarf planets rather than true planets. Because the distances of the planets from the Sun appeared to follow a regular pattern, apart from the large gap between Mars and Jupiter, a search for another planet in that region was made. Pluto is rounded by its own gravity but has not cleared its neighbourhoods, and so lost its status as a planet, much to the chagrin of internet campaigners, being redefined as a dwarf planet along with Ceres, Eris and several other ...

9. Cosmic inflation (Score: 1.0000)
The discovery, if confirmed, will also lend support to the inflation model in cosmology ' the hypothesis that the universe underwent a brief period of exponential expansion immediately after the big bang ' since only inflation can amplify gravitational waves from the beginning of the universe to a point at which they become detectable. Guth's model also explains the origins of the large-scale structure of the universe ' before inflation there are quantum fluctuations in the very early...

10. Topic of the Moment – the northern lights and the solar wind (Score: 1.0000)
The Earth’s magnetic field traps parts of the solar wind as it passes the planet, and the electrons and ions that make up that wind travel towards the Earth’s magnetic poles. Molecules and atoms in the Earth’s upper atmosphere are left ionized or excited by collisions with the particles from the solar wind, and in either regaining an electron or returning to their ground state, they emit light – the glow of the aurora. he Voyager 1 space probe found in 2010 that ...

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